Monel is a nickel alloy that is a malleable, corrosion-resistant metal that is stronger than steel. Nickel concentration in Monel grades can reach 67 percent, whereas copper content in cupronickel grades can reach 60 percent. This alloy group possesses good resistance to extremely corrosive acids, such as hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid, in addition to superior resistance to alkali media. Monel is particularly well suited to maritime engineering applications due to its increased copper content. Monel components function well in brine solutions because of the copper presence, which provides some resistance against biofouling.
There are 5 major types of Monel which are Monel Alloy 400, Monel Alloy K-500, Monel Alloy K-500 Rev E, Monel Alloy K-500 Rev F, Monel Alloy K-500 Rev G, Monel Alloy R-405.
Monel equivalent grade
|ALLOY||WERKSTOFF NR. (WNR)||UNS||AFNOR||GOST||BS||JIS||EN|
|Monel 400||2.4360||N04400||NU-30M||МНЖМц 28-2,5-1,5||NA 13||NW 4400||NiCu30Fe|
Monel chemical compatibility chart
|Monel 400||B 127, B 164||N04400||28-34||2.0 max||63 min||2.5 max||0.5 max|
|Monel 401||N04401||28-34||2.0 max||63 min||2.5 max|
|Monel 404||N04404||0.05 max||Rem||0.1 max||52-57||0.5 max||0.1 max|
|Monel K-500||B 865||N05500||2.3-3.15||27-33||1.5 max||63 min||0.35-0.85||2.0 max||0.5 max|
|Monel 405||B 164||N04405||28-34||2.0 max||63 min||2.5 max||0.5 max|
Monel yield and tensile strength
|ALLOY||TENSILE STRENGTH||YIELD STRENGTH (0.2%OFFSET)||DENSITY||MELTING POINT||ELONGATION|
|Monel 400||Psi – 80000, MPa – 550||Psi – 35000, MPa – 240||8.8 g/cm3||1350 °C (2460 °F)||40 %|
|Monel 404||70 KSI min (483 MPA min)||25 KSI min (172 MPA min)||8.91 gm/cm3||1300 – 1350℃||35 %|
|Monel 405||550 Mpa||240 Mpa||8.80 g/cm3||1300 – 1350°C||40 %|
|Monel K500||Psi – 160000 , MPa – 1100||Psi – 115000 , MPa – 790||8.44 g/cm3||1350 °C (2460 °F)||20 %|
- Monel has a wide range of applications
- Applications in the aerospace industry
- Applications in the marine environment
- Instruments of music
- Production and refining of Oil
Hastelloy is a superalloy, which indicates it has more strength than other alloys. The material composition of Hastelloy includes Chromium, carbon, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, aluminium, titanium, niobium, iron, copper, nickel, and other elements. Hastelloy comes in a variety of grades, each with its own unique composition. Alloy C, C4, B, B2, C276 are only a few of the grades available. Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C22, and Hastelloy X are the most popular grades, which are predominantly made of nickel and molybdenum.
Hastelloy has several notable features, including:
• Resistance to oxidants
• Excellent ductility
• High-temperature resistance
Hastelloy is easy to work with and maybe forged as well as cold worked. This superalloy’s corrosion resistance in welded products is aided by its low carbon content, which reduces carbide precipitation during the welding process.
Hastelloy is a superb choice for tough situations that are expected to cause significant levels of corrosion and oxidization due to its many advantages. It can survive corrosion from the following sources:
• Acetic acid
• Chlorides of iron
• Anhydride of acetic acid
This superalloy is also commonly used in pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and nuclear reactors, and is a preferred choice for piping material in the chemical processing and petrochemical industries.
|Hastelloy C22||2.4602||N06022||–||–||NW 6022||–||NiCr21Mo14W|
|Hastelloy C276||2.4819||N10276||ХН65МВУ||–||NW 0276||ЭП760||NiMo16Cr15W|
|Hastelloy Hybrid BC1||2.4708||N10362|
Hastelloy mechanical properties
|DENSITY||MELTING POINT||TENSILE STRENGTH||YIELD STRENGTH (0.2%OFFSET)||ELONGATION|
|C22||8.69 g/cm3||1399 °C (2550 °F)||Psi – 1,00,000 , MPa – 690||Psi – 45000 , MPa – 310||45 %|
|C276||8.89 g/cm33||1370 °C (2500 °F)||Psi – 1,15,000 , MPa – 790||Psi – 52,000 , MPa – 355||40%|
|B2||9.2 g/cm3||1370 °C (2550 °F)||Psi – 1,15,000 , MPa –760||Psi – 52,000 , MPa – 350||40%|
|B3||9.2 g/cm3||1370 °C (2550 °F)||Psi – 1,15,000 , MPa –760||Psi – 52,000 , MPa – 350||40%|
|C4||8.64 g/cm3||1350-1400 °C||783||365||55%|
|Hybrid BC1||8.83 g/cm³||1343 – 1443°C||725||310||40%|
|X||8.22 g/cm³||1355°C||655 MPa||240 MPa||35%|
Hastelloy chemical compatibility
|Material / Purity (%):||C-276||C-22|
Nickel Content in Hastelloy and Monel
Nickel concentration in Monel grades can reach 67 percent, whereas copper content in cupronickel grades can reach 60 percent. Hastelloy grades can have a nickel content of up to 71 percent, as well as high molybdenum content of up to 16 percent, chromium content of up to 22 percent, and other elements. This is what makes the material more durable and resistant to corrosion than most other alloys.
How To Tell The Difference Between Hastelloy And Monel
When new metallic objects are polished and have the same surface hue, it can be difficult to tell them apart. Hastelloy and other nickel alloys have a silvery appearance, whereas Monel can have a yellowish-green tinge or hue at the edges. However, looking at the unified number systems (UNS) that would designate them independently is the best way to identify them separately.
Melting Points of Hastelloy and Monel
Yield Strength of Hastelloy with Monel
The yield strength of Hastelloy can reach 364 MPa. The yield strengths of Monel grades can reach 345 MPa. As a result, Hastelloy’s grades are often more durable than Monel’s grades. Hastelloy is a nickel-based alloy of the type known as ferritic. Monel is an iron-based alloy of the type known as austenitic. Hastelloy will typically yield to Monel with little effort, but it can also be pushed to produce over twice as much yield strength; this is because Hastelloy has more nickel and less carbon than Monel.
Melting points of Hastelloy and Monel grades are similar up to 1350 degrees Celsius. However, there are minor variations depending on the grade and material composition. Although their melting points are similar, Hastelloy grades have a better heat resistance capability than Monel grades.